Risyandi Anwar, Arlette Setiawan, Supriatno Supriatno, Unang Supratman


Background: Tongue cancer is a common neoplasm found in oral cavity. It is characterized by aggressive cell growth, poor prognosis and being the cause of mortality. Objectives: to discover bioactive compounds of Rasamala leaves which possess an activity to inhibit SP-C1 human tongue cancer cell proliferation by reducing the expression of c-Myc proto oncogene. Methods: This is an experimental laboratory study using SP-C1 human tongue cancer cell. Separation of bioactive compounds from Rasamala leaves ethyl acetate extract was using various chromatography techniques guided by antiproliferative assay. Results: Two compounds were produced consisting of kaempferol (1) and quercetin (2). Compound 1 and 2 were tested to assess antiproliferative activity of kaempferol and quercetin upon SP-C1tongue cancer cell. IC50 values obtained from antiproliferative assay of each compound were 0.72 and 0.70 ug/ml respectively. Data analysis using ANCOVA test attained a significant value of α=0.05 and proceeded for probit analysis. The activity of  compound 1 and 2 was tested on c-Myc proto oncogene and it was acquired that compound 1 and 2 can suppress c-myc proto oncogene expression. Conclusion: Rasamala compounds consist of kaempferol (1) and quercetin (2) which possess an activity as tongue cancer cell proliferation inhibitor by reducing c-myc proto oncogene expression.


Altingia excelsa, c-myc, tongue cancer cell SP-C1, kaempferol, quercetin.

Full Text:



Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Thun MJ.Global Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J. Clin.2011; 59: 225-249.

Soendoro T. Laporan RisKesDas 2013. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia.2013.p.85-87

Warnakulasuriya, S..Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer.Oral Oncol.2009;45: 309–316.

Johnson NW, Warnakulasuriya S, Gupta PC, Dimba E, Chindia M,and Otoh EC. Global oral health inequalities in incidence and outcomes for oral cancer: Causes and solutions.Adv. Dent. Res.2011; 23: 237–246.

Sirait, AM. Faktor resiko tumor/kanker rongga mulut dan tenggorokan di Indonesia. Media LitBangKes.2013; 23(3): 122-129.

Braakhuis BJ, Bloemena E, Leemans CR, Brakenhoff RH. Molecular Analysis of Surgical Margins in Head and Neck Cancer: More Than a Marginal Issue.Oral Oncol.2010; 46: 485–491.

Shah, J.P. and Gil, Z. 2009.Current concepts in management of oral cancer–surgery.OralOncol. 45: 394–401.

Tan W, Lu J,Huang M, Li Y, Chen M, Wu G, et al.. Anti-cancer Natural Products Isolated from Chinese Medicinal Herbs.Chinese Med.2011; 6: 27-37.

El-Readi MZ, Eid HH, Ashour ML, Eid SY, Labib RM, Sporer F, wink M. Variation of the Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oils from Leaves and Stems of Liquidambar styraciflua (Altingiaceae). J. Pharm and Pharmacol. 2013; 65 (11): 1653-1663.

10.Yen CY, Liang SS, Han LY, ChouHL , Chou CK,Lin SR, and Chiu CC.Cardiotoxin III Inhibits Proliferation and Migration of OralCancer Cells through MAPK and MMP Signaling.The ScieWorldJou.2013; 12: 324-340.

Kim HH, Yi HS, Hwan MO, Hyuk KH, Ra KS, Lee MW. Anti oxidative and anti-proliferative activity on Human Prostate Cancer Lines of the phenolic compounds from Corylopsis coreana Uyeki. Molecules.2013; 18: 4876-4888.

Anwar R. Peran metabolit sekunder dari daun rasamala sebagai penghambat siklus sel dan induksi apoptosis sel kanker lidah manusia in vitro. Ind Jur of Apl Scie. 2015; 5(2) 101-104.

Dewick PM. Medicinal Natural Product a Biosyntesis Approach.London.John Willey and Sons. 2009. p.89-94.

Karp G. Cell and Molecular biology.Hoboken.John wiley&Sons.2008. p.89-98.

Lodish H, Berk A,andKaiser CA.Molecular Cell Biology 6thEdition.NewYork. W.H. Freeman and Company.2008. p.78-88.

Goodman RS.Medical Cell Biology 3rd edition. London.Elsevier.2008. p.98-102

Alberts B, Johnson A,Lewis., Raff M, Roberts K,and Walter P.. Molecular Biology of The Cell 5th edition. New York. Garland Science taylor&Francis group.2008. P 126-129.

Danihelova, M., Veverika, M., Sturdik, E., Jantova, S. Antioxidant action and cytotoxicity on HeLa and NIH-3T3 cels of new quercetin derivates.Interdisciplonary Toxicology. 2013; 6(4), 209-216.

Luo H, Daddysman K., Rankin GO, Jiang BH, and Chen Y. Kaempferol enhances cisplatin’s effect on ovarian cancer cells through promoting apoptosis caused by down regulation of cMyc. Cancer Cell International.2010; 10(16). 34-42.

Supriatno.Cis- Platinum Meningkatkan Apoptosis dan Hambatan Invasi Sel Kanker Lidah Manusia in Vitro.MIKGI.2008; 10: 73-78.

Supratman, U. Elusidasi Struktur Senyawa Organik.Edisi V. Jurusan Kimia FMIPA Unpad. Jatinangor.2010.p.87-89

Xie F, Su M, Zhang M, Guo Z, and Su B. Kaempferol Promotes Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells by Inducing the Tumor Suppressor, PTEN. Int Jou of Mol Sci.2013;14. 215-226.

Jang YJ., Kim J, Shim J, Byun S, Lee KW, Lee HJ.. Kaempferol attenuates 4-Hydroxynonenal-induces apoptosis in PC12 cells by directly inhibiting NADPH oxidase. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2010; 3(3):747-754.

Jung US, JL Yoon, MH Park,JB Moon. Anti-inflammatory compositions containing extracts of Corylopsis coreana and Erythronium japonicum.Molecules.2014; 4(1): 68-76

Lee E, Moon BH, Park Y, Hong S, Lee S, Lee Y, Lim Y.Effects of Hydroxy and Methoxy Substituents on NMR Data in Flavonols.Bull Korean Chem. Soc.2007; 29 (2): 507-510.



Article Metrics

Abstract view : 661 times
PDF - 162 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Contact Us:
Faculty of Dentistry
Lambung Mangkurat University
Jalan Veteran No. 128 B Banjarmasin, Indonesia
Telp/Fax. (0511) 3255444;

E-mail. /


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.